“Type 2 Diabetes: What are the symptoms for diabetes type 2”

A chronic illness called diabetes type 2 causes improper usage and storage of glucose in the body (a type of sugar). The main energy source for the body is glucose, which comes from the food we consume. The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which aids in transporting glucose from the blood into the body’s cells for use as fuel.

In diabetes type 2, the body develops an inability to adequately utilise insulin due to its resistance. Due to the accumulation of glucose in the blood, elevated blood sugar levels develop. Numerous symptoms, such as frequent urination, increased thirst, exhaustion, hazy vision, and sluggish wound or cut healing, may result from this.

Although the precise origin of type 2 diabetes is not entirely known, it is thought to be brought on by a confluence of hereditary and environmental factors. Obesity, physical inactivity, age, and family history are all risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

Diet, exercise, and medication may all be used to control type 2 diabetes. Working closely with a medical team is crucial to effectively managing the disease and avoiding consequences.

The production and utilization of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that controls how proteins, lipids, and carbs are metabolized, are linked to diabetes type 2. Glucose, the body’s main source of energy, is taken up by insulin and transported from the blood into the body’s cells, where it is utilized as fuel. In diabetes type 2, the body develops insulin resistance, which reduces the body’s cells' capacity to absorb glucose from the blood.

Normally, the pancreas produces insulin to aid with the cells' ability to absorb glucose when blood glucose levels increase (such as after a meal). The pancreas may still generate insulin in people with type 2 diabetes, but since the cells are resistant to it, the insulin is unable to effectively reduce blood glucose levels. Due to the accumulation of glucose in the blood, elevated blood sugar levels develop.

The pancreas generates extra insulin to make up for the resistance to insulin. However, when the need for insulin rises over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up, which would result in less insulin being produced. A cycle of high blood sugar and high insulin levels may result from this, which might cause the blood sugar levels to increase even more.

In addition to insulin resistance, the pancreas' beta cells aren’t functioning properly. The quantity and functionality of beta cells are decreased in type 2 diabetes, which affects their ability to produce insulin. As a result, the body is unable to create enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance.

Fat buildup in the liver and muscle tissue is also related to type 2 diabetes. These tissues' insulin resistance causes fat to build up, which reduces insulin sensitivity further, creating a vicious cycle of insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels.

Insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and malfunction of the pancreatic beta cells are all symptoms of diabetes type 2. High blood sugar levels, as well as a number of symptoms and problems, are brought on by these changes. Inflammation’s function is another factor. The immune system’s normal reaction to damage or infection is inflammation, however, diabetes type 2 causes the body to experience persistent low-grade inflammation.

A number of things, such as obesity, high blood sugar, and insulin resistance, contribute to this. Chronic inflammation may cause beta cell malfunction and the development of insulin resistance, aggravating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes type 2 is also influenced by adipokines, hormones produced by fat cells. Adipokines like leptin and adiponectin regulate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Obesity may cause an imbalance in these hormones, which may lead to insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels. AGEs are produced when the body’s proteins bind to glucose, a process known as glycation.

Increased AGE formation is a result of type 2 diabetes high blood glucose levels. By harming blood vessels and neurons, these AGEs have been related to issues including diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic neuropathy.

These are the signs of type 2 diabetes;

  1. Urinating a lot: Frequent urination is one of diabetes type 2’s most prevalent symptoms. The body has to get rid of extra sugar in the blood, which is what causes this. The body creates more insulin to attempt to eliminate excess sugar from the blood when there is too much of it there. The pancreas nonetheless generates more insulin in diabetes type 2 in an effort to try to eliminate the sugar since the body becomes less responsive to it. Due to the kidneys' increased ability to eliminate blood sugar, a rise in insulin results in more urine being produced. The desire to urinate will increase as more sugar is excreted in the urine.

  2. An other typical sign of type 2 diabetes is increased thirst. Dehydration, which is brought on by the frequent urination, is what causes this. Frequent urination causes a person to lose a lot of fluid from their body, which may cause dehydration. As the body strives to make up for the lost fluids, dehydration increases thirst.

  3. Weariness: As the body tries to create energy, diabetes type 2 may lead to fatigue. The body’s cells' major source of energy, glucose, might be difficult for the body to absorb when blood sugar levels are high. As a consequence, the body could not have enough energy to carry out regular chores, which might result in sensations of weakness and exhaustion.

  4. Vision blur: Diabetes type 2 may affect the shape of the eye’s lens, which can impair vision. Water and protein make up the lens of the eye. High blood sugar levels may cause the protein in the eye’s lens to bind with sugar, altering the shape of the lens. Vision blur may result from this because the picture being focused on the retina may become distorted.

  5. Cuts and wounds may take longer to heal as a result of diabetes type 2’s impact on the body’s capacity to fight infections. Blood vessels may be damaged by high blood sugar levels, making it more difficult for the body to transport oxygen and nutrients to the wound. Cuts or wounds may take longer to heal if this slows the healing process.

  6. Nerve damage brought on by diabetes type 2 may cause numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. Diabetic neuropathy is what is meant by this. Small blood arteries that feed the neurons with oxygen and nutrients might get damaged by diabetes type 2. The nerves may get damaged as a result, resulting in tingling or numbness in the hands and feet.

  7. Unexpected weight loss: Diabetes type 2 may cause the body to burn fat and muscle instead of glucose, resulting in unexpected weight loss despite an increase in hunger. The body attempts to get rid of the extra sugar when blood sugar levels are high by creating more insulin. The pancreas will nonetheless create more insulin to attempt to eliminate the sugar if the body gets resistant to it. In order to lose weight, the body may start burning fat and muscle instead of glucose.

  8. Hunger pains even after eating: Diabetes type 2 may cause the body to feel as if it isn’t receiving enough food, resulting in hunger sensations even after eating. This occurs when the body’s cells are unable to absorb glucose from the blood, leading the body to believe that it is not receiving enough food. As a consequence, even after eating, the individual will still feel hungry.

  9. Dehydration, which may result in dry skin and mouth in people with diabetes type 2, can also cause dry skin and mouth. Frequent urination causes a person to lose a lot of fluid from their body, which may cause dehydration. The skin may become flaky, dry, and irritated as a result of this. Additionally, it might make the mouth dry and sticky, which makes it challenging to talk or swallow. Additionally, having high blood sugar levels may make the skin more vulnerable to infections and impede the healing of wounds and cuts.

  10. Yeast infections: Type 2 diabetes may facilitate the growth of yeast in the body, which can result in yeast infections of the skin, mouth, and other regions. A particular kind of fungus called yeast may flourish in warm, wet regions of the body. Yeast may feed on sugar and grow more rapidly when blood sugar levels are high.

    This may result in yeast infections in the mouth, such as thrush, or in the skin, such as jock itch or athlete’s foot. Vaginal yeast infections in women are also possible. If blood sugar levels are poorly managed, these infections may be painful and take longer to recover. Acanthosis nigricans, sometimes known as black skin patches, may develop in people with diabetes type 2. These patches often develop in the groin, neck, and armpit region. They could be silky, black, and irritating. They are brought on by insulin overproduction, which may enhance skin pigmentation.

  11. Sexual dysfunction: Both men and women who have type 2 diabetes may have sexual dysfunction. It may cause erectile dysfunction in males. It may cause vaginal dryness, reduced sex drive in women, and trouble eliciting orgasm. Poor blood flow and nerve injury are the causes of this, both of which may be brought on by high blood sugar levels.

  12. Mood swings: Diabetes type 2 might affect one’s mood. Depression, impatience, and anxiety are possible symptoms of type 2 diabetes. This is brought on by the stress of managing diabetes as well as diabetes-related side symptoms including tiredness and erectile dysfunction.

  13. Gum disease: The blood vessels that feed the gums with oxygen and nutrients have been damaged, which is the cause of this. Gum irritation and bleeding may result from this.

  14. Rising infection risk: Type 2 diabetes may make a person more vulnerable to infections. Patients with diabetes type 2 have an increased risk of developing skin, bladder, and vaginal infections. This is due to the possibility that type 2 diabetes will make it more difficult for the body to fight off infections and slow the recovery of cuts and wounds.

  15. Vomiting and nauseousness may be brought on by type 2 diabetes. This may be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal complication that happens when the body overproduces the toxic ketones (ketones) that are produced when insulin is not present. A fruity odor on the breath and symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and stomach discomfort may result from this.

  16. Low blood pressure, which may be brought on by diabetes type 2, can result in fainting and wooziness. Hypoglycemia, or dangerously low blood sugar, may result in this. This may be brought on by eating fewer meals or missing meals, using excessive amounts of oral diabetic medications, or using too much insulin.

  17. Diabetes type 2 might result in increased bruising and sores that take longer to heal. This is due to the possibility that it may harm blood vessels, making it more difficult for the body to carry nutrients and oxygen to the injured region. The individual may become more prone to bruising and the healing process may be slowed.

  18. Itchy, dry eyes are a complication of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy, a disorder that develops when high blood sugar levels damage the retina’s blood vessels, is what causes this. When it becomes bad enough, this may impair vision by making the eyes dry and irritating.

  19. Damage to the kidneys may result from type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy, a disease that results from high blood sugar levels harming renal blood vessels, is what causes this. As a result, kidney function may decline, and in more extreme situations, renal failure may result.

  20. Risk of cardiovascular disease is increased: People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to get cardiovascular disease. As a result, illnesses including high blood pressure, stroke, and heart attack might develop. This is because high blood sugar levels can harm the blood vessels.

  21. Issues with the feet are a potential complication of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes affects the nerves in the foot, which results in diabetic neuropathy, which is what causes this. It may become more difficult to identify wounds or injuries as a result of numbness, tingling, and lack of feeling in the feet. Amputations and foot infections may become more common as a result.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that not every individual will have all of these symptoms, and that some of them may vary. If you think you may have type 2 diabetes, it’s critical to contact a doctor right once since, if unchecked, it may cause additional major health problems.